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I walk on up a broad street, leading to an open place or square—where, or near which, I am told, the best hotels are to be found —in search of a lodging; to the right a street stretches along the quay, to the left appears to stand the more populous part of the city.
On the way. The future development and prosperity of Ajaccio depend on the drainage and cultivation of the plains of Campo dell'Oro, and on the impetus given to the neighbourhood by the presence of rich or invalid visitors. The cathedral, finished about , in the form of a Greek cross, with a majestic cupola, recalls the good Italian architecture of that period.
They show in it the font of white Luni marble where Napoleon was baptised the 21st of July, , nearly two years after his birth, a custom not uncommon in Corsica. I pass a large fountain, with lions ; how gloomily dressed are the women filling their water-jars! And now, for the weather shows signs of clearing, the opposite or southern side of the gulf is for the first time visible.
My next trial was at the Hotel de Londres, which stands in a small street at the north-west corner of the Place du Diamant, and is by no means so well situated as the last I had entered. Each of these inns occupies a single flat in a large square building. Here, although the entrance and staircase are very objectionable, being extremely dirty, and encumbered by small children who cling parasitically to the steps and balustrades, and though it is at once evident that the arrangements of the floor used as the hotel leave much to be desired, I find one very clean room looking to the front for myself, and one on the other side of the establishment for my servant.
These are the only two unlet ; my own is far too near the kitchen to be agreeable—abundant noises, odours, and flies may be expected—yet, for one may go farther and fare worse, I order my luggage to be brought up-stairs, and settle myself for a sojourn of some days, the more readily that my first impressions of the owners of the inn are prepossessing. Valery's volume is the only book I have with me as a guide to Corsica, and from that I gather that Ajaccio will be my best point as head-quarters while I remain in the island.
Other apartments there are, and of a larger size, but these are used by officers of the garrison, and other regular pensioners of the restaurant. They have, however, eyes of singular brightness, and long glossy hair. Their constant attention to the wants of their inmates as far as the limited nature of their hotel allowed, the extreme cleanliness of their rooms, the good qualities of their cookery, their reasonable charges, and their untiring civility and cheeriness, it is a pleasure to remember.
Nor should the first-rate coffee of Madame be forgotten the Ottavi had long kept an hotel at Algiers , nor the industry and good humour of Boniface, the waiter. Gery, the Prefet, to whom M. Merimee has kindly procured me two introductory letters, is in France ; so I leave these at the office of the Secretary-general, M. The Prefecture, which stands back from the Cours Napoleon, in a garden, is the handsomest public building I have seen in Ajaccio. The backs of the houses here have many picturesque accompaniments denied to their bald staring fronts ; from my window in the hotel, as I look at the back or north side of the houses fronting the sea on the Place du Diamant, there are clusters of wooden balconies, little flights of glittering pigeons, and pigeon - houses to suit, mysterious zig-zag lines of jars up and down the walls, unaccountably linked together like the joints of some mighty serpent, and various other small incidents of interest.
On the whole, however, I feel happy that there is little or nothing for me to do in the way of street-scenery drawing at Ajaccio. The day becomes finer ; crossing the spacious place by the equestrian statue of the first Emperor Napoleon, I go down to the sea by a broad carriage road, which, at its outset, is sheltered by a pleasant avenue of plane trees, and afterwards leads on to the Capella de' Greci, and to the public cemetery which I had remarked in steaming up the gulf.
I wander on—as is my way in coming to new places—in order that by seeing a little on all sides, the best sites for making characteristic drawings may be ascertained ; along this shore there are many beautiful bits, but chiefly about the small mortuary chapels, where cypress-trees and various shrubs flourish, and in the frequent combination of granite rocks with the sea and opposite gulf shore. Very few people seem about, though the city is so close by ; the cut of the peasantwomen's dress is much like that of the Ionians, the skirt full, with many small plaits or folds, the boddice and short jacket close-fitting—a graceful costume, but in nearly all cases of a dark hue, brown or purple, more usually black.
As for the men, they have a look as of porters or tradesmen out of work, carrying their hands in their pockets with what seems an idle and disconsolate air, and are in no wise picturesque or remarkable. Leaving the shore drive—for there is a broad and good road all along the sea-side for some miles— I ascend by a short cut to the Cours Grandval, a noble promenade leading from the Place du Diamant, opposite to the Rue Napoleon, of which in fact it may be called a continuatiop, since from its termination you may see the harbour and the quay at the other extremity, to the hills which shelter Ajaccio on its west side.
This Cours Grandval is really fine ; a wide carriage road with a footpath on each side, and in its position, high above the sea, most beautiful ; and now that the clouds are lifting, disclosing a vast semicircle of lofty mountains at the head of the gulf, besides a prolonged line of lower heights on its southern side, I begin to foresee that my opinions concerning Corsican scenery have yet to be formed—all the more that as I walk on I find a magnificent luxuriance of vegetation filling up, not only every portion of the gardens and of parts of the uncultivated space on each side of the Cours Grandval, but of the hills beyond, where a profusion of olive growth waves low down, and a rich carpeting of underwood or shrubbery clothes their sides higher up.
Close to this beautiful, but apparently little-frequented promenade, stand the four houses lately built, known as Les Cottages" and calling at one of these, Dr. Ribton's, I learn that my friends the J. Nearly opposite these four dwellings stands the fine house of M. Conti, Receveur-general; and beyond them a large convent school seems at present nearly the only other building on the Cours Grandval, except a solitary house at its termination, where, so to speak, the city ends and the country begins.
Going down again to the shore, I wander on to the Capella de' Greci. Somehow, a kind of lonely. The church has its name because in its neighbourhood were buried many Greeks who fought in a Genoese army defeated by the Corsicans. It was built at the commencement of the last century by Paul Emile Pozzo di Borgo.
Charming is the walk on the northern side of the gulf, along the strand. There are many small chapels scattered about, of manifold shapes, round, quadrangular, domed, in the form of a sarcophagus, in that of a temple, surrounded by white walls, and among cypresses and weeping willows.
There the dead have their country seats ; they are family vaults, their position on the coast in full view. The vegetation is surprisingly beautiful and vigorous, especially that of the cactus, broom, cistus, myrtle, asphodel, and lentisk; the almond-tree in full flower, and the fig-tree in leaf, showing how much warmer is the climate here than at Cannes or Nice, where as yet not a leaf of these trees is out.
But—I speculate professionally—what can I make of Ajaccio itself as a drawing? What though some of the very best views of the city are to be found along this walk by the shore and towards the end of the Cours Grandval, how are its blocks of houses seven stories high, square as warehouses, white evenly spotted with black, to be wrought into material for the picturesque?
Possibly, at sunrise, when the light will be behind the buildings and all their poverty of good detail hidden, its general form may then be utilised as a single dark mass. Returning to the town and through the Place du Diamant, I walk along the Cours Napoleon, which runs eastward and at right angles to the Cours Grandval and the Rue Napoleon; from it, numerous narrow lanes descend to the inner or east harbour, and to the Rue Fesch.
But although perhaps there is more appearance of life in this broad street than in any other part of the city, I find little to admire in its uniform lines of tall houses, and am not sorry to come to the end of it, opposite what needs must be, when the mountains are unveiled—for all are now once more invisible—very grand views of the Gulf-head and the surrounding shores. But how rural—now that I have explored most parts of Ajaccio—does this city seem! How little activity and movement in its streets!
How abounding with children, and how destitute of men! How scantily furnished is the sea with craft! How lazy seem a great portion of its inhabitants! The brisk little French soldiers alone redeem the dulness of the town scenes, their bright red trousers almost the only gleam of colour in a world of black and brown ; their lively walk and discourse nearly the only signs of gaiety.
City, quotha! Although my friends were out when I called at the Hotel de l'Europe, the landlady begged me to see all the rooms in her inn, consisting, like the other hotels here, of one large flat containing various apartments. The situation of the Hotel de l'Europe certainly has advantages which the de Londres cannot boast of; but for all that, I do not regret having selected to live in the latter. The Corsican is not fond of being buried in the public churchyard ; agreeably to the ways of the ancient patriarchs, he desires to be interred in his own land, among his own dear ones.
From this cause the whole island is dotted over with little mausoleums, which often enjoy the most charming situations and enhance the picturesqueness of the landscape. The Gulf mountain lines seem unmanageable from their great length, and difficult to represent except by portions; but perhaps a clear sky may show things differently to-morrow : Bakalum we shall see , as the Turk says; and being here for a purpose, all that is possible in topographic illustration must be tried.
By the crowding of officers and others here, and by the narrowness of the allotted space, I am reminded of the inn at Cattaro in Dalmatia, and of its. The cook here, however, is a loftier artist than he at the foot of the Montenegrin mountain; so the discomfort has its compensations.
After the dry air of Cannes and Nice, how warm and damp does this feel! April 10, 5 A. A pleasant beginning for study in Corsica, O painter! But at seven the rain ceases, and gleams of sunshine gladden the gulf I walk out, up to the end of the Boulevard or Cours Grandval, to make if possible a commencement of work, but find the wind far too high for any drawing.
The solitary house, the last on the left hand on the road, now uninhabited, belonged, they tell me, to Cardinal Fesch, and here at one period. At this hour the grotto, and all the neighbourhood of the old Buonaparte house, are gay with French soldiery, and resounding with bugles and drums, this being the practising ground for those art-students. From all about this spot are seen some of the best views of Ajaccio, and of the central chain of mountains, for the ground rises from the city to the end of the Cours Grandval, and commands most extensive prospects eastward ; the city, wholly in shadow, looks its best in early morning, as I guessed it would.
Beyond the grotto, winding gravel paths lead downward to a most charming little dell; you descend through a wilderness of heath, cistus, broom, and asphodel, till you come to gardens of fig and olive, when, passing one or two tiny cottages, you find yourself on the farther side of the little valley, whence other pleasant paths cross and border the hill sides down to the Campo Santo on the sea-shore carriage-road.
Everywhere throughout these rambles there is a sensation of freedom—rarely do you see a creature— nothing interrupts the quiet. A flock of sheep and a shepherd are the only living things I have seen since I left the Cours Grandval ; the sheep are the first I have met with in Corsica, diminutive little beasts, all jetty black ; black, too, is the dress of their guardian.
On by the sea to the Campo Santo; the tombs which had appeared like dwellings from the steamer are very numerous and of every kind, from the large plain or ornamented chapel to the simple headstone or cross. Generally they exhibit good taste, often standing in a small detached garden, walled or railed round, and planted with shrubs and flowers.
Many of these plots of ground are evidently kept with care. Beyond them a large space is marked. This house was generally the summer residence of Madame Buonaparte and her family. Surrounded almost by the wild olive, the cactus, the clematis, and almond, is a very singular and isolated granite rock, called Napoleon's Grotto.
The remains of a summer-house beneath the rock are still visible ; the entrance to it is nearly closed by a very luxuriant ifg-tree. It was once Napoleon's favourite retreat, in which he followed his studies during the vacation allowed by the college of Brienne. I went to see the Casone, a large garden covered with olive trees and Indian figs, and in it is a grotto which enjoys some celebrity. Formed by great rocks, opposite the sea, and not unpicturesque, it has been held as the spot Where Napoleon used to meditate as an infant, and some enthusiastic travellers have visited it as such.
I am sorry to destroy their illusions, but the Casone, an old villa of the Jesuits, which after their suppression passed to the State, was never possessed by the Buonaparte family except as national property. Near Ajaccio, in the old Jardin Casone, belonging to the Buonaparte family, is the grotto formed of great blocks of granite stone, where Napoleon I. Passing these homes of the dead, the road runs on towards the lies Sanguinaires, here in full view, but wind and cloud forbid all drawing to-day, so, giving up further exploring, I return ; only two or three peasants in rude carts, and some half a score on foot, all dressed in triste black, passing me on my way back to the city, so quiet and little frequented are these environs of Ajaccio.
At the Hotel de l'Europe I find my friends the J. The longer I stay in Ajaccio the more I am surprised at the crowds of children, not so much in its streets as in the passages and doorways and on the stairs of the houses. These they lay claim to as their own particular property, and seem to think it odd if you ask them to allow you to pass ; nevertheless, it should be added that these little urchins are invariably civil and good-humoured.
Another surprise to me is that everybody talks an Italian which is quite easy to understand, especially by one used to the dialects of Southern Italy—a facility of communication I was not prepared for, as I had heard the Corsican dialect described as a mere jargon, whereas it is not at all so. Ottavi is Corse, but has passed most of his life in Algiers; Madame is of Strasbourg, but a Pole in origin: both spare no pains to please, and are profuse of good food and wine—the latter a strong red sort, and not unlike a Burgundy in flavour.
If the capital is triste, why not the remote villages? You will, however," he adds, "find no costumes in the present day at Carghese ; the people there, who originally came from Maina, in the Morea, have for a long time past intermarried with Corsicans, and, although among themselves they keep up their own language, they can hardly, except in that one particular, be any longer called Greek.
I decline the friendly offer of this gentleman—a M. Martinenghi—to inscribe my name in the cercle, or club ; for, should the weather become clear, there will be little enough time for drawing before June, none at all extra for "dawdling" or "society" —terms at certain times nearly equivalent. How would it be to pass whole months here, as of old one did in those Italian hills? Would isolation and undisturbed study atone now, as then, for the want of society and much else?
Meanwhile, I write out all M. Prosper Merimee's and Mr. Hawker's notes for use, till, the rain holding up, I try to see the Secretary-general, but he is indisposto, and in bed. So I come back and give myself up to the fixed conviction that this is truly the land of the Helix tristis, the melancholy snail.
So I set out eastward, to explore some new ground, with G. All about the eastern or inner harbour many interesting drawings might be made, weather permitting ; but the boats partake of the unpicturesqueness of all things artificial in Corsica. Oh, for a few of the beautiful rainbow-tinted boats of Malta or Gozo! But here, like the goats and the sheep, and the dress of the human beings, the boats, too, are all black!
Goat tied to tail of a horse ; goat greatly disquieted by being obliged to gallop. Swallows in small parties, flitting about, battling with the fierce wind, or sitting puffily-ruffled upon the telegraph wires, saying, "We have come to Corsica too soon. Many of the peasant women hereabouts wear low-crowned straw hats, like those in use at Antibes, but not so flat. High up, on one of the many hills—for the Gulf of Ajaccio is entirely backed by heights—is a lofty monument, and a wayside man informs one that it is the tomb of Count Andrea Pozzo di Borgo, 1 who was a native.
Pozzo di Borgo is solid and well situated ; they show the one-windowed room where he was born. Two grenadiers deserted from a French regiment, auxiliaries of the Genoese, and fled to Alata, living in the Macchie, but secretly sustained by a goatherd. The father of the young man, returning to his cabin, learned the treason, and having prepared his son for death shot him with his own hand.
Turning off from the main or Bastia road, one less wide leads to the left, and I follow it, as somewhat more sheltered ; it goes, they tell me, to two large convict establishments or penitenciers, called Castelluccio, and beyond that to Milelli, another old Buonaparte country house ; also to the chapel and rocks of St. Antoine, and to one or two more distant villages.
And if there is no possibility of work, owing to the wind, at least this walk is interesting, as showing much beautiful landscape all around—in depths of olive-grown valleys, in cultivation near at hand, and in glimpses of the eastern mountains, where, amid gloomy cloud, many grand and transient effects gleam out.
The peasants, or, possibly gentry for all who pass me are dressed alike , are mostly riding the wiry little ponies for which the island is noted. Some of these persons wear hood-cloaks, like those used in Crete ; but generally they wear black cloth caps, black beards, and black velveteen dresses.
Far down in the leafy valleys, and high up on the hill-sides, everywhere peer forth from the olive or ilex groves solitary tombs, many of them domed, and very much like Mahometan welys; others are quaint little temple-like structures, or plain chapels. See notes pp. But it becomes too tiresome to fight on against this furious wind, so by 5 P. I am again back at the city, and sit awhile with the S's—all three of us indulging in disrespectful remarks on the climate of Ajaccio in April, , and half wishing we had never visited the native land of Helix tristis.
Last of all I went to the Piazza Letitia, one side of which is formed by what was the family dwelling of the Buonapartes when Napoleon I. But this, the very greatest lion of Ajaccio, it is too late to see this evening; yet one cannot contemplate even the outside of the house without feelings of singular interest. Nor, till now, did I know that the family occupied a palazzo of such size and of so much appearance of well-to-do condition.
April 11, 5 A. But it clears later, as it did yesterday, and allows me a couple of hours for drawing at the end of the Cours Grandval, and at the Grotto of Napoleon, where the lichen-grown granite boulders are a picture, and the growth of vegetation on all sides charming. My work, however, is cut short by a sharp storm of hail, and for nearly ten minutes a fall of sleety snow makes the grotto a welcome refuge.
As usual, they tell me such weather in April was never before known in Ajaccio! At 9, to the Prefecture, where I find M. Galloni d'Istria, the Secretarygeneral. This gentleman, whose time during the absence of M. By this route, he tells me, I shall traverse some of the finest inland Corsican scenery, as well as visit the most interesting towns in the southern part of the island, and that the whole of the tour can be made in a carriage, provided it be a light one; for the broad Route Imperiale, or diligence road, does not cross the mountains at Bavella; the last part of the journey, moreover, is not so certain to be effected if any heavy fall of snow should occur in the high forest passes.
Nor did the active help of M. Galloni d'Istria cease here. He gave me a first-rate map of the island, and promises letters of introduction to persons residing in the places through which I must go while making the first tour he has thus indicated, and on my return to Ajaccio, he will provide letters to all other parts of the island I may wish to visit.
It does not always happen that an artist's topographical tour should be so completely entered into and so warmly assisted by an official personage; and I leave M. Galloni d'Istria, feeling not only much obliged to himself, but also to M Prosper Merimee for having so kindly procured letters for me to M. Returning to the hotel, after a visit to the J. Four plans present themselves, and it becomes urgent that I should fix on one of these, and carry it into execution.
First—To go to the principal towns by Diligence—certainly a cheaper plan than any other. But as these public vehicles go by night as well as by day, the object of my visit—to study scenery—would be but half gained, nor, indeed, so much as half, for a diligence could not be stopped for the sake of drawing a landscape, though never so beautiful; and many disadvantages, to wit, jolting, crowding, and dirt, would assuredly more or less interfere with work after some twenty-four hours' journey.
Moreover, from Porto Vecchio or Solenzaro no Diligence roads cross the island, and once arrived at the first-named of those places, further progress would be stopped, as there are no vehicles for hire at all on the east side of the island, excepting at Bastia. Plan No. I is therefore abandoned. Secondly—To hire horses and ride ; doubtless, great freedom of action is ensured by such an arrangement. Yet against it there are numerous personal objections not to be overruled.
So exit plan No. But in Corsica this system could hardly be effected, for, from what I can learn, the towns are sometimes farther apart than even the longest day's walk could manage, and with no halting place between them ; very often too much time would thus be wasted in such a plan, because great portions of the island would probably not present any interest for the pencil.
To go on foot through some of the forest scenery may be necessary; but a quicker process for seeing and drawing the greater part of Corsica in ten weeks must be adopted. Fourthly—There remains this plan, on which, after looking at the matter in all its bearings, I finally decide—namely, to hire a two-horse carriage for the whole time of my stay, paying for it so much daily, and using it for long or for short journeys, either as there may be much or little to draw, or according to the distance of halting places.
In this way I should be free to make drawings in the neighbourhood of the principal towns, or to make excursions from them to various points ; and if any scene on the high road could not easily be returned to, owing to too great distance, I might halt my vehicle while I worked, or perhaps oftener send it on and walk ; on the other hand, I could drive as quitkly as possible through districts in which there is little of the picturesque.
This plan of travelling, though apparently the most expensive, will economise time, and in the end, I believe, will prove the cheapest; for my object in coming to Corsica being that of carrying away the greatest possible number of records of its scenery, the saving some outlay will not compensate for a meagre portfolio, and I might ultimately discover the least costly process to be also the least satisfactory.
In support of which hypothesis a fable taught me long years ago by one dead and gone recurs to my memory. Once upon a time three poor students, all very near-sighted, and each possessing a single pair of horn-rimmed spectacles, set out to walk to a remote university, for the purpose of competing for a professorship. On the way, while sleeping by the road-side, a thief stole their three pairs of horn-rimmed spectacles.
Waking, their distress was great: they stumbled, they fell, they lost their way ; and night was at hand, when they met a pedlar. Yes," said the pedlar, exactly three pairs ; but they are set in gold, and with magnificent workmanship; in fact, they were made for the king, and they cost so much —— Such a sum," said the students, is absurd ; it is nearly as much as we possess. I cannot," the pedlar replied, take less ; but here is an ivory-handled. It is ridiculous to buy a pair of this man's spectacles at such a price.
Thereon, No. I set off slowly, but, falling into a ditch by reason of his blindness, broke his leg, and was carried back, by a charitable passer-by in a cart, to his native town. Two other matters have to be settled before starting to see all Corsica. The first question has been already partly settled by M. Tours to the higher forests, and the centre of the island, may be postponed till all risk of snow and rain are passed. Next as to baggage. Not knowing in the least what sort of accommodation is to be met with, I shall carry a good supply.
Dividing my roba," and leaving part of it with my host, M. Ottavi, I shall take lots of drawing material, and clothing for hot and cold weather, besides my small folding bed ; so that, with my servant's help, I may at least be as comfortable as in Albanian khans, Cretan cottages, or Syrian sheds.
For it is certain that at fifty-six" roughing it" is not so easy as at thirty or forty, and if good rest at night is not to be procured, the journey may as well be given up, for. Here is a visit from M. In this hotel there resides an English lady—a Miss C. I look out of window, and behold a torrent of children—a hundred, at least—all carrying bits of wood, which they knock, and bump, and rattle against all the railings, doorsteps, and walls, as their procession passes on.
Now, in most southern places where Christians are desirous of celebrating Easter by triumphant noises, pistols and crackers are fired off at the proper time ; every one who has been in Rome at that season is aware of the uproar made on the Saturday preceding Easter Day; and in the Maltese villages, at Alexandria, and other eastern cities, the hullabaloo is fearful. But here, in Corsica, no firearms of any sort are at present allowed to be in the hands of the people, and so the popular piety finds vent in this singular outburst of rattling pieces of wood, which, I am told, has a dim reference to Judas Iscariot, the thumps on the rails and stones being typical of what the faithful consider that person's bones, were he living, should receive.
I go out to the broad Cours Grandval, and pass most of the afternoon in making drawings near the Grotto of Napoleon. For the day is now finer, the clouds higher, and the mountains at intervals nearly clear. The view over Ajaccio from this point is indeed fine ; the noble range of snowy heights beyond the head of the gulf rise magnificently above the city, and the ugliness of its detail is lost in the midst of so large and glorious a picture, of which it forms so small a part.
The colour of this landscape, too, is very beautiful ; the deep- green clustering foliage in the middle distance, and the gray olives, the purple nearer the hills, and the dazzling white snow-line more remote, the calm blue of the sea to-day really lake-like , and the exquisite variety of vegetation in the foreground, combine to make one of the most delightful of scenes—one, however, by no means easy to convey a just idea of on paper.
See Plate I. I feel that I am beginning to be fascinated by Corsica, and to discover that it is far fuller of landscape beauty than I had thought ; those long vistas. One would have thought the town besieged and being taken by assault—Valery, i. Ribton's, in one of the four cottage villas, I went up the hill on the north side of the town, immediately above the Hotel de Londres ; there are very charming walks among olive trees here, as well as on an open kind of common, where cactus growth and granite boulders form a thousand ready-made foregrounds.
This is one of the most striking views I have yet seen in the neighbourhood of Ajaccio ; far below lies spread out the whole city and the broad gulf, across which you look to the high range of hills stretching out to Capo Moro, while to the east the gorge of Bocognano and the lofty snow-topped walls which shut in the valley of Bastelica rise in great splendour and beauty.
The line of the hill cape opposite is, however, one only to be managed in a picture with delicacy, by breaking it with cloud shadows, for its uniform length is wanting in variety of outline. Pitifully barren of interest is the city as to architecture. In what place along the two Riviere, or the Gulf of Spezzia—or, indeed, in what part of Italian coast scenery in general—should one not feel a desire to sketch some arch, some campanile, or even the whole town or village? Here, on the contrary, you seek to avoid drawing a space literally filled by great warehouselike buildings, unrelieved in the slightest way except by parallel lines of windows.
This, and the gloomy darkness of the dress of both sexes, are certainly drawbacks to Ajaccio in a picturesque sense. At dinner, M. Ottavi tells me that from fifteen to twenty-five francs daily may be asked for a two-horse carriage. But he is to enquire further. April 12, 6 A. The morning is lovely, and there is a delicious fresh and light mountain-air sort of feeling in the atmosphere. The distant heights are absolutely clear, a wall of opal, and to-day, for the first time, I see this remarkable view in perfection.
No amount of building, even should this part of Corsica become eventually as villacovered as Mentone or Cannes, Torquay or Norwood, can ever affect the character of this exquisite prospect, which depends on elements far above all risk of change; on the wide extent of its horizon and on the great majesty of the two dark ranges of hills opposite, connected by a line of heights still loftier, conveying a forcible impression of the solemn inner mountain life of the island; on the broad and generally placid gulf; on the long and marked form of the hills to the south side of it; and on the wide expanse of water towards the western sea.
All these cannot alter. The olive-grown slopes, the almond groves, the gardens, and the breadth of shrubby wilderness and high cactus may disappear, but the general aspect of the distance cannot. Why, I ask myself, do people compare this Gulf to the Bay of Naples? To me it seems that no two places more dissimilar can exist.
Scarcely any one comes to this part of the neighbourhood of Ajaccio; a few boys and girls are seen searching for wild asparagus, and one or two individuals with surprising chimney-pot hats taking a morning walk. So till nine I draw quietly, and, after a talk with the J. If I wanted any confirmation of my resolve not to go about the island in diligences, I could have none better than an examination of the vehicles which start at II A.
To be shut up in one of these might be endured if duty or necessity so ordered; but on no other consideration whatever. On coming back to the hotel the plague of little boys bursts forth again in a new phase. It pleases some twenty to have instituted a blockade inside the street-door of the house, and the fun is to hold it closed against the battering and hammering of some twenty outside, wholly irrespective of the interests of the frequenters of the establishment; and this lasts till the outer party conquer and the door is beaten in, when the calamity ceases, and a passage up-stairs becomes possible.
At no time does the impression of multitudinous little-boyhood leave me in Ajaccio ; no sooner am I up-stairs than I happen to look beyond the houses of the Place du Diamant towards two high and slanting walls following the direction of the steep hill-side hard by. Now, in any other place where I ever was, such walls would be infested by cats, or pigeons, or swallows; but here I count twenty-eight little boys, all crawling up the wall-tops after the fashion of lizards, and sliding down again—which pastime goes on all day long.
Galloni d'Istria pays me a visit, and obligingly goes over the ground I am about to visit on the Government map with me. He recommends me to visit the plains on the east side as early as I can, on account of their great unhealthiness late in the season, and to leave the high forests on the west and in the centre of the island till the snow is melted and the chesnut woods out in leaf. I decide, therefore, to start on the 14th or 15th, if, meantime, I can find a carriage to suit me.
Many of these tombtemples are very pleasing in form, and the view from the last of them looking back to the gulf head and mountains is striking. They stand all along the s hore, at the foot of the hills which form the northern side of the gulf, ending.
See Vignette, p. Beyond the Campo Santo all along the road-side the growth of myrtle, lentisk, cactus, and asphodel, is luxuriant beyond description ; and the lies Sanguinaires form numberless combinations with such foregrounds. Masses of pale granite, covered in part with cystus, are at the outer edge of the road, and run out into the gulf in spurs, white foam breaking over them and catching the sunlight, while the pointed islets on the horizon gleam darkly purple against the deepening sky tints.
The head-dress of the women, so graceful and becoming, is generally, among those not in mourning, of buff or purple, with a broad white border. The short Greek spencer and fluted dress is most frequently worn, though there are a few of more modern or fashionable cut. I observe hardly any girls whom one might call beautiful, but nearly all have a very pleasing expression and a look of intelligence. Among the gloomily dressed men, a group of French soldiers here and there in red and blue form a pictorial relief.
In the town the small-boy plague has gone into another form to-day, besides the passage-swarming and door-blocking. Crowds of urchins have taken to rushing to and fro with small barrows with shrilly shrieking wheels; each barrow contains three small Corsicans, and is pushed and pulled by twice as many more. After dinner I visit Miss C. Her interest in Corsica and all it contains is extreme. The collection of plants and natural history she has made in the island, and her drawings of the numerous fish found here, must have fully occupied her leisure through the winter; she has already accomplished some long mountain excursions, and really knows the island well.
A person uniting great activity of mind, physical energy, good judgment and taste, as this lady appears to do, and bent on introducing Corsica to the English South-seeking public, may really become instrumental in bringing about great changes in Ajaccio.
April 13, 5 A. I doubt if any double range can be finer, what though the refinement of Greek outline and the contrast of plains be wanting. If the city were tolerably supplied with picturesque architecture, few finer subjects for a painting could be found, so good is the middle distance of trees, so rich and varied the foreground vegetation. I work, too, this morning at another drawing nearer the city, and quite on the shore see.
Plate 2 ; in the first hours of morning this view is very imposing, the vulgar detail of the houses being hidden in shade, and the high snow mountains appearing to rise directly above them. Galloni has not yet sent the promised budget of letters ; neither have I found a carriage; so it seems clear that a start to-morrow cannot be accomplished. The landlord here asks me if he shall give me a letter of introduction to some banditti," a few of whom are still known to live in the Macchie, or woods of the interior.
Ottavi, "ils ne manquent rien—they have plenty of sheep and do nobody any harm. Generally it is eaten with sugar. With fresh fish, broccie, and the good ordinary red wine for daily fare, might not a painter do well to come here— air and landscape being such as they are?
Already I begin to feel infected by Corsica-mania, the more that the quiet of the country adjoining this city reminds me of Olevano and Civitella and other mountain places where I studied painting in early days. Assuredly Ajaccio is a place where activity and bustle are little known ; very seldom you see a carriage in its streets, barring those of the postal service; and even carts are rare objects.
We agree on the price, fifteen francs a day—this is to include all expenses of driver and horses, and I am to pay neither more nor less, whether I remain stationary or use the trap daily. To-morrow I am to make a trial excursion. It is discovered that my man Giorgio of whom, in some twelve or thirteen years' service, there exists no tradition of his having been known to forget anything , has left my flask on board the steamer, so we must take to gourds, which, indeed, are the popular and appropriate media for carrying fluid in Corsica.
Almost every peasant carries one, slung to his shoulder by a string; those in common use are generally of large size, but there are others smaller, very pretty and delicate, and these, when polished and finished with silver stoppers and chains, are really elegant.
There is Napoleon's house to be seen ; or rather that in which he was born. So, not being in an industrious mood. The milk which drains from the cheese is heated in a copper with a certain quantity of pure milk, and is stirred with a large spoon. The pure milk becomes condensed by slow degrees, care being taken to skim off the scum produced by the boiling, and then the condensed part is taken up in the large spoon and placed in moulds, which are made of fine rushes woven together, and is left for some time to drain and to cool.
The price of the fresh cheese varies from twenty to forty centimes the pound. The broccio, which is more highly appreciated, is sold at from forty to sixty centimes the pound. Although I confess to having gone to this sight with a kind of routine or duty feeling, the visit gave me very great pleasure.
The house—there is now an inscription above the door recording that Napoleon I. It is very accurately given in the recent work of Las Cases. At present it is inhabited by M. Ramolino, one of the deputies for the department of Corsica. Among other curiosities which this residence contains is a little cannon that was the favourite plaything of Buonaparte's childhood.
It weighs thirty French pounds. The house where Napoleon was born is to the imagination the first monument in Ajaccio. It was pillaged in by peasants opposed to the Republic, after the flight of Madame Letizia and her children to her country-house of Melilli, while Napoleon was at Bastia.
A fine portrait of Napoleon in imperial costume, by Gerard, is in the salon next to the bed-room, and it was in this salon that Napoleon was born. The little bronze cannon, a plaything of his infancy, disappeared some years ago ; they tell me it was stolen, and that no trace has been found of it. The European house of Napoleon has passed into the hands of strangers to his race ; no furniture of the time exists there, no inscription is read above the door; and by-and-by this house will not be distinguishable from any others in the city.
From the street of St. Charles you emerge on a small rectangular place. An elm tree stands before an old-fashioned, yellowish gray, stuccoed, three-storeyed house, with a flat roof, and a gallery on it, with six windows to the front, and worn-out looking doors ; on the corner of this house you read the inscription, Place Letitia. The house, but little altered since his time, is, if not a palace, yet, at any rate, the dwelling of a family of rank and consequence.
This is declared by its exterior ; and it may be called really a palace, in comparison with the village-cabin in which Paoli was born. It is roomy, comfortable, cleanly. There are Joseph, the eldest son ; Napoleon, the second born; Lucien, Louis, Jerome; there are Caroline, Elise, and Pauline ; all the children of a notary of moderate income, who is incessantly and vainly carrying on lawsuits with the Jesuits of Ajaccio to gain a contested estate which is necessary to his numerous family, for the future of his children fills him with anxiety.
What will they be in the world? And, behold! So many crowned potentates were born and educated in this little house by a lady unknown to fame, the daughter of a citizen of a small and seldom mentioned country town, Letitia Ramolino, who, at the age of fourteen, married a man equally unknown.
There is not a tale in the "Thousand and One Nights would sound more fabulous than the history of the Buonaparte family! Uninhabited, and without a vestige of furniture, except some faded tapestry on the walls, the desolate. Letitia's family , who inherited the property; but there are still in the apartments mirrors, old framework of chairs like the walls, they appear to have been formerly covered with red or gilt tapestry , marble chimneypieces, and large fireplaces, one or two highly ornamented chests, an ancient spinet-piano, the sedan-chair of Madame, her bedstead, and a few portraits ; all beside, as far as I saw, is bare unfurnished wall, and much of what I have named has been collected by the present emperor of the French from various places.
The long gallery, the terrace and courtyard at the back of the house, the dining-room, every part of the building has its interest of association, and by walking through the apartments one is carried back to the days when the most wonderful man of modern times lived in it as a boy. To me, who years ago was in the habit of frequently visiting one branch of the Buonaparte family, the place is doubly interesting ; and when I remember the group of the late Prince Canino's numerous children, of whom in those days I saw so much, I seem to be more able to realise the circle of the first Napoleon's mother and her little ones.
The elderly person who showed me the house had lived in the service of Princess Caroline BuonaparteMurat, Queen of Naples, and was interested at hearing me speak of the houses at Musignano and l' Arricia, where I was wont to be so kindly received in former days. There is plenty of food for reflection in a visit to the Casa Buonaparte in Ajaccio. There is a statue of General Abbatucci close by, with posts, chain-connected, at a little distance all round it.
I count fifty-three children swinging on these chains, and rather more swarming up some carts not far off. Certainly, the multitude of children is a striking feature in Ajaccio street scenery, and M. Ottavi tells me that numbers of the male population emigrate to the continent for a part of the year, so that the apparent comparative fewness of grown-up men or youths may be thus accounted for. After walking a mile or two I turned back when near the Palazzo Bacciocchi, a handsome building which stands in gardens towards the head of the gulf, and thence, repassing the town, regained my favourite.
The house has been renovated by the present emperor, the old family furniture has been sought out and brought back, and everything has been replaced as much as possible in the same position as when the rooms were occupied by the Buonapartes in former days. On the subject of the antiquity of the Buonaparte family, M. Valery, citing as his authority the historian Limperani, states that a deed, by which in the year certain seigneurs gave some property at Venaco to an Abbot of Montecristo, was witnessed by one of that family, and that the name is spelled Bonaparte.
Filippini mentions one Gabriel Buonaparte, chanoine de St. Roch, as a theological lecturer at the end of the sixteenth century. Here, in spite of the cold and chilly afternoon, I find Mrs. Back to the hotel, after sitting some time with J. Galloni d'Istria has very kindly sent me the promised budget of introductory letters for Olmeto, Sartene, Bonifacio, and Porto Vecchio. All to-day, after the first hour or two of early sunshine, has been gloomy and cloudy.
Helix tristis prevails. April Nevertheless, at seven I go out to the cactus land and granite rocks, for one can make foreground studies; but no, it begins to rain, and I have to return. Is there, as I said this time four years ago in Crete, no settled weather here in April? So I sit down to write letters, especially one to M. Galloni d'Istria, thanking him for his assistance.
Miss C. This lady is very obliging in answering my innumerable questions about numerous places in Corsica. At 9, when it rains less, I call at Dr. Ribton's to see the J. You enter their salle a manger straight from the road, a system which—all the world being seated at breakfast—is destructive to the peace of the delicate-minded intruder.
And, certainly, on a wet day it would be hard to find so dull a place as Ajaccio. Suli, in Albania, is gay by comparison, Wady Haifa, in Nubia, bustling; for those are places of by-gone times, whereas we are here in a "city. Meanwhile the carriage in question comes ; it. The trap does not go badly—which, as it may be one's daily home for a couple of months, it is pleasant to know—and the two poor little horses shuffle along quickly enough.
We take the road to Castelluccio, the upper Penitencier, or convict establishment, but turn off at the lower building, whence a bridle road goes on to St. Antonio, a place Miss C. All around the Penitencier convicts are working, and fast changing these bare or maquis-covered hills into vineyards.
Antonio, very soon leaves all traces of habitation and humanity, and might be exceedingly remote from cities instead of close to a capital. The walk along the hills is delightful, and the "maquis," of which I have heard and read so much, full of charm—orchids, cyclamen, lavender, myrtle, cystus, absolutely a garden of shrubs and flowers. Agenda 1. Basic Data about City West 2. Armin Heinzl Sven Scheibmayr Objective. Probabilistic LCF - investigation of a steam turbine rotor Dipl.
Konrad Vogeler Dr. Energy efficiency in buildings and districts Key technologies within a case study of the Young Cities Project, Iran Prof. Kunstmann, A. Marx, G. Smiatek, J. Werhahn Challenge Alpine Catchments Fast precipitation-runoff response times short warning.
Motivation 2. Method 3. Result 4. Application of EN ISO in electro-pneumatic control systems Hazards and measures against hazards by implementation of safe pneumatic circuits These examples of switching circuits are offered free. Level of service estimation at traffic signals based on innovative traffic data services and collection techniques Authors: Steffen Axer, Jannis Rohde, Bernhard Friedrich Network-wide LOS estimation at.
Studienkomitee A2 Transformers Martin A. SPF-L 1. SARA 1. Ursula Eicker Dr. Numerical analysis of the influence of turbulence on the exchange processes between porous-medium and free flow T. Version: The interplay of faulting, magmatism and hydrothermal fluid flow at oceanic ridges new insights from numerical modeling Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen.
Klaus Hopfensitz 96 Ringe 2. Johannes Nawrath 96 Ringe 4. Werner Barl 95 Ringe 5. Auflage Working group 1. Presentation of the. Comenius meeting in Enns from Nov. The teachers and students from Bratislava. DI Dr. Stock Uni-Center Physikalisches Institut B M. Axer, F. Camps, V. Commichau, G. Hangarter, J. Mnich, P. Schorn, R. Schulte, W. June Berlin Crossroads to. Simulation of a Battery Electric Vehicle M. Auer, T. Kuthada, N. Widdecke, J. Ziele des Moduls Dieses Modul stellt als eine der wesentlichen Formen wirtschaftlichen Denkens und Handelns den strategischen Ansatz vor.
Es gibt einen. Repositioning University Collections as Scientific Infrastructures. Cornelia Weber Humboldt University. October Content Grgec, M. Vexler, C. Jungemann, B. Technical Thermodynamics Chapter 1: Introduction, some nomenclature, table of contents Prof. New ways of induction heating in the injection moulding process Micro Technology innovation forum Villingen-Schwenningen February 29, Dipl.
Maier Prof. Rudolf Peto, Bielefeld Germany , www. Seite: 1 Herren - Spo Kennziffer: 6. People and goods are constantly in motion. Further installations, production. Jejkal, R. Stotzka, M. Sutter, H. Gemmeke 1 What is the Motivation? Graphical development. Comparative assessment of the suitability of the tree species sessile oak, common beech, Scots pine and Douglas-fir on Triassic sandstone locations at different climate scenarios as a contribution to the.
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