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At boot time, all BIOS services are available, and the memory below address 0x contains the interrupt vector table. DRAM refresh for all system DRAM in conventional memory and extended memory, but not necessarily expanded memory, has been set up and is running. All memory at and above address 0x can be used by the boot program; it may even overwrite itself.

Peripheral cards such as hard disk drive host bus adapters and video cards have their own firmware, and BIOS extension option ROM may be a part of the expansion card firmware, which provide additional functionality to BIOS. An extension ROM could in principle contain operating system, or it could implement an entirely different boot process such as network booting. The motherboard BIOS typically contains code for initializing and bootstrapping integrated display and integrated storage.

An add-in card requires an option ROM if the card is not supported by the motherboard BIOS and the card needs to be initialized or made accessible through BIOS services before the operating system can be loaded usually this means it is required in the boot process. Then it can replace the BIOS boot process with one of its own, or it can merely modify the boot sequence by inserting its own boot actions into it, by preventing the BIOS from detecting certain devices as bootable, or both.

In a valid expansion ROM, this signature is followed by a single byte indicating the number of byte blocks the expansion ROM occupies in real memory, and the next byte is the option ROM's entry point also known as its "entry offset". At this point, the extension ROM code takes over, typically testing and initializing the hardware it controls and registering interrupt vectors for use by post-boot applications.

It may use BIOS services including those provided by previously initialized option ROMs to provide a user configuration interface, to display diagnostic information, or to do anything else that it requires. Option ROMs normally reside on adapter cards. The BIOS ROM is customized to the particular manufacturer's hardware, allowing low-level services such as reading a keystroke or writing a sector of data to diskette to be provided in a standardized way to programs, including operating systems.

For example, an IBM PC might have either a monochrome or a color display adapter using different display memory addresses and hardware , but a single, standard, BIOS system call may be invoked to display a character at a specified position on the screen in text mode or graphics mode. Operating systems and executive software that are designed to supersede this basic firmware functionality provide replacement software interfaces to application software. Applications can also provide these services to themselves.

To increase the speed of screen output, many programs bypassed the BIOS and programmed the video display hardware directly. Other graphics programmers, particularly but not exclusively in the demoscene , observed that there were technical capabilities of the PC display adapters that were not supported by the IBM BIOS and could not be taken advantage of without circumventing it. Since the AT-compatible BIOS ran in Intel real mode , operating systems that ran in protected mode on and later processors required hardware device drivers compatible with protected mode operation to replace BIOS services.

In modern PCs running modern operating systems such as Windows and Linux the BIOS interrupt calls is used only during booting and initial loading of operating systems. Before the operating system's first graphical screen is displayed, input and output are typically handled through BIOS. A boot menu such as the textual menu of Windows, which allows users to choose an operating system to boot, to boot into the safe mode , or to use the last known good configuration, is displayed through BIOS and receives keyboard input through BIOS.

Intel processors have reprogrammable microcode since the P6 microarchitecture. The BIOS contain patches to the processor microcode that fix errors in the initial processor microcode; microcode is loaded into processor's SRAM so reprogramming is not persistent, thus loading of microcode updates is performed each time the system is powered up. Without reprogrammable microcode, an expensive processor swap would be required; [22] for example, the Pentium FDIV bug became an expensive fiasco for Intel as it required a product recall because the original Pentium processor's defective microcode could not be reprogrammed.

Operating systems can update main processor microcode also. Cracks for non-genuine Windows distributions usually edit the SLIC or emulate it in order to bypass Windows activation. Some BIOS implementations allow overclocking , an action in which the CPU is adjusted to a higher clock rate than its manufacturer rating for guaranteed capability. Overclocking may, however, seriously compromise system reliability in insufficiently cooled computers and generally shorten component lifespan.

Overclocking, when incorrectly performed, may also cause components to overheat so quickly that they mechanically destroy themselves. Calling real mode BIOS services directly is inefficient for protected mode and long mode operating systems. BIOS interrupt calls are not used by modern multitasking operating systems after they initially load. Early BIOS versions did not have passwords or boot-device selection options.

The BIOS was hard-coded to boot from the first floppy drive, or, if that failed, the first hard disk. Access control in early AT-class machines was by a physical keylock switch which was not hard to defeat if the computer case could be opened. Anyone who could switch on the computer could boot it. Usually, the key is advertised for short time during the early startup, for example "Press DEL to enter Setup".

The actual key depends on specific hardware. Features present in the BIOS setup utility typically include:. This rewriting of the contents is sometimes termed flashing. A file containing such contents is sometimes termed "a BIOS image". A BIOS might be reflashed in order to upgrade to a newer version to fix bugs or provide improved performance or to support newer hardware.

ROMs could be replaced, but not altered, by users. Flash chips are programmed and re-programmed in-circuit, while EPROM chips need to be removed from the motherboard for re-programming. It had a century bit which allowed for manually changing the century when the year happened. Most BIOS revisions created in and nearly all BIOS revisions in supported the year by setting the century bit automatically when the clock rolled past midnight, 31 December The first flash chips were attached to the ISA bus.

Some modern motherboards are including even bigger NAND flash memory ICs on board which are capable of storing whole compact operating systems, such as some Linux distributions. In the AT, the keyboard interface was controlled by a microcontroller with its own programmable memory. This controller was also assigned the A20 gate function to manage memory above the one-megabyte range; occasionally an upgrade of this "keyboard BIOS" was necessary to take advantage of software that could use upper memory.

SPD and memory timings initialization. The motherboard manufacturer then customized this BIOS to suit its own hardware. For this reason, updated BIOSes are normally obtained directly from the motherboard manufacturer. AMD provided product specifications for some chipsets, and Google is sponsoring the project. EEPROM and Flash memory chips are advantageous because they can be easily updated by the user; it is customary for hardware manufacturers to issue BIOS updates to upgrade their products, improve compatibility and remove bugs.

However, this advantage had the risk that an improperly executed or aborted BIOS update could render the computer or device unusable. This code verifies if the rest of the BIOS is intact using hash checksums or other methods before transferring control to it. If the boot block detects any corruption in the main BIOS, it will typically warn the user that a recovery process must be initiated by booting from removable media floppy, CD or USB flash drive so the user can try flashing the BIOS again.

There are at least five known BIOS attack viruses, two of which were for demonstration purposes. The first one found in the wild was Mebromi , targeting Chinese users. CIH appeared in mid and became active in April Often, infected computers could no longer boot, and people had to remove the flash ROM IC from the motherboard and reprogram it. CIH targeted the then-widespread Intel iTX motherboard chipset and took advantage of the fact that the Windows 9x operating systems, also widespread at the time, allowed direct hardware access to all programs.

There is also extra protection from accidental BIOS rewrites in the form of boot blocks which are protected from accidental overwrite or dual and quad BIOS equipped systems which may, in the event of a crash, use a backup BIOS. As a result, as of , CIH has become essentially harmless, at worst causing annoyance by infecting executable files and triggering antivirus software. In , at the Black Hat Security Conference, he showed how to elevate privileges and read physical memory, using malicious procedures that replaced normal ACPI functions stored in flash memory.

Researchers Anibal Sacco [53] and Alfredo Ortega, from Core Security Technologies, demonstrated how to insert malicious code into the decompression routines in the BIOS, allowing for nearly full control of the PC at start-up, even before the operating system is booted. Thus, it requires physical access to the machine, or for the user to be root.

Despite these requirements, Ortega underlined the profound implications of his and Sacco's discovery: "We can patch a driver to drop a fully working rootkit. We even have a little code that can remove or disable antivirus. End users can't disable this function. The architecture of the rootkit safeguard can also prevent the system from running the user's own software changes, which makes UEFI controversial as a legacy BIOS replacement in the open hardware community.

Other alternatives to the functionality of the "Legacy BIOS" in the x86 world include coreboot and libreboot. As such the BIOS utility no longer supports the legacy option, and prints "Legacy mode not supported on this system".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Firmware for hardware initialization and OS runtime services. This article is about the BIOS as found in personal computers. For other uses, see Bios disambiguation. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Option ROM. Main article: Hardware monitoring. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. For comparable software on other computer systems, see booting.

Since little-endian representation must be assumed in the context of IBM PC compatible machines, this can be written as bit word 0xAA55 in programs for x86 processors note the swapped order , whereas it would have to be written as 0x55AA in programs for other CPU architectures using a big-endian representation.

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Hopefully we will be able to master this extremely popular machine Good Luck! Posts: 75 Threads: 4 Joined: Feb Reputation: 0. I'm uploading these screen shot. Posts: 1 Threads: 0 Joined: Dec Reputation: 0. VirtualBios Junior Member. Posts: Threads: 14 Joined: Aug Reputation: Dansolo Senior Member. Untested as I do not own this machine! This may not work.

And let us know how it works if you still want to try it. However, this is at your own risk and I take no responsibility. Always keep a backup of a known-good BIOS. Don't flash a motherboard if you don't have a backup computer just in case. Always use RAID mode. I flashed it on my vostro It skips that second screen, and doesn't detect drives? Sorry for my English. Thanks for your help. I attached the photo to make clear about that.

I using this vostro at the moment. You're in RAID mode, then. Does it let you select AHCI mode, and if so, does it work in that mode? View a Printable Version. Theme created by Justin S. Close Privacy Overview This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website.

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