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The story creates a nice contrast between Marion and her husband and the freer spirit of Charles Wales. It also registers the genuine emotional link between 25 F. It tells the story of the most unpopular boy at the St. Regis school. The Midwestern boy who had appeared in some earlier stories is now brought into the larger world for which he has yearned and is painfully rebuffed by that world.

Emotionally, Basil develops considerably and has a number of insights which help him understand the variety and complexity of the world and of human character. That of the loss of illusion, of the impossibility of perpetrating a happiness that is dependent on youth. They are, in the last resort, stories about time. A PowerPoint presentation is a very common thing these days used in a variety of contexts such as class rooms, business meetings and job fairs.

We will ask ourselves what makes a presentation effective. Is the simple usage of PowerPoint tools equated with professionalism or are there given aspects that render a presentation efficient? What skills must a presenter have for the act of communication to be labelled professional?

In the current study we propose to look at such aspects that must be considered for a PowerPoint presentation to impact effectively on the recipient. They are meant to inform the audience of 1 state of facts, 2 proposals for research projects, 3 results of research, 4 outcomes of projects etc. Nowadays, PowerPoint presentations are used to help the audience follow the argumentation by offering visual support for key words or images relevant for the argumentation.

The presentation is a form of monologue with interactive characteristics now and then , where extratextual elements attitude, posture, gesture etc. These will produce an overall effect on the recipient who will then react positively or negatively to the presentation as an informative action resulting from the hopefully efficient combination of the speech with the slideshow.

When preparing a presentation the following aspects should also be considered in order to make the presentation as accessible as possible: 1 Presentations must also entertain. But then make sure you give the audience time to laugh and to get over the funny effect and their reaction before you move along. Keep them uncomplicated with information that can be grasped at a glance. It will be difficult for you to simultaneously handle the PowerPoint and your written notes. If someone else handles the slideshow, you will most probably lose pace if you are reading.

The following elements will become relevant for the oral aspect of the presentation. The words used e. You can simulate interaction by appearing to ask questions without expecting an answer from the public as the answer is to be found on the slideshow and will enter on your click e. Or, you may give out tasks to be solved by the audience.

If the participants to the presentation are not too many, you can devise some pair or group work just to attract attention before the actual presentation. Make funny comments, where appropriate. Never forget that interacting will keep the public on their toes. Attitude is very important. You should be enthusiastic about the subject under discussion as this might instil a similar enthusiasm in your recipients.

Excessive enthusiasm might be received negatively or with reluctance. A variable tone of voice can ensure a boredom-free presentation. However, try to modulate your voice without reaching very high disturbing pitch. Have a communicative look about you and maintain as much as possible eye contact.

Switch regularly from individual contact to group contact and from the front to the back of the room. Use mimicry to show 1 disappointment with a result or an undertaking, 2 doubt as to outcome fulfilment, 3 enthusiasm about the subject, 4 surprise as a turning point in the argumentation etc.. It is important to move about either from one position to another in the room or by using your hands. If you want to point at something, use a laser beam. Use an upright professional posture. Always stand during the presentation.

It is easier for people to follow you. A presentation in front of an audience is always a special occasion. Dress accordingly. A master slide will be designed to include the date of the presentation, your name, your affiliation and the logo of your institution, if applicable, on each distinct slide you project.

Make sure the colours you choose are friendly to the eye, i. Also, choose a background that will contrast with the text to facilitate the reading of the text. Consider the fact that maybe in some rooms you cannot close blinds or draw curtains to make the projection more visible, so if you have strong colours against a light background you stand a better chance at having the text easily read.

Adjust the number of slides to the time you have allocated for the presentation. Remember to allow at least 5 minutes of questions at the end of the presentation. Arrange slides into coherent, easy-to-follow flow of argumentation with logical steps.

The first slide should be the title slide, and then you can have a slide outlining the content to be tackled. If you need more slides for the same topic, continue with the same heading and maybe number the slides e. If your listener has, for a time, lost attention, they should always be able to return to the slideshow without any difficulty of understanding what point in the presentation you are at.

Always design uncrowded slides containing the key words arranged logically , with large, easily readable text. Do not design the text on the slide to contain everything that needs to be said. The slide is not there for you to read from but rather as a prompter with key words that you will then web into coherent argumentation. Balance the number of slides with the amount of information per slide. Rather than having fewer slides you should prefer to have clear-content slides.

Use uncomplicated custom animation with minimal entrance effects and non-distracting sounds. Some effects are considered underprofessional if used in inappropriate contexts. Visual elements will always break the monotony of the written text as will audio-visual elements. If you use cartoons evaluate the potential impact to see whether they might reduce the level of professionalism exhibited by the presentation in the eyes of the audience.

If so, do not use them. If the audience laughs throughout the presentation they will probably not retain any informative elements. You should not forget that ultimately the main purpose of the presentation is information communication and NOT entertainment. Notice how the elements depicted above have been employed.

To conclude we will state that the presenter must consider both intratextual i. Standard noun group NG distribution defined as the most frequent, median-clustered distribution is represented by a manifest predilection for simplicity versus complexity in print commercial advertising except for cases of technical products, role borrowing and exquisite copies for luxury products.

Although the NG can be the most loaded structure employed as an appropriate device of economy and compression, NG structure is considerably biased towards simplicity irrespective of the copy length. The functions of information and commendation in NGs are achieved by throwing into focus the product name and thematizing on product attributes in the case of postmodification, whereas in premodification structural economy is achieved either through modifier clustering or simply by compressing and essentializing full sentences.

Having infinite potential for pre- and post- modification with embedded and subembedded structures, NGs are able to perform both informational functions and commendation. Although the NG can be one of the most loaded groups, NGs in print commercial advertising are simple and therefore contribute persuasion through memorability. Multiply-modified noun groups NGmm appear in longer copies or instances of role borrowing and can be product-specific as in the case of luxury commodities where the NG contributes sophistication, exquisiteness and superimposes connotations of overabundance.

The method consisted primarily of functional grammar analysis of a corpus of 50 advertisements Ce as to NG structure: simple NGs , complex NGc and multiply-modified NGmm , as well as statistical interpretation of the results. The linguistic variable under survey — the NG — was considered as number of counts per advertisement. Corpus Ce Description. Written texts, i. A further variable — copy length, relevant for the purpose of our demonstration — was introduced and the corpus was subdivided into short S-copy - comprising 28 - and long copy L-copy , comprising 22 advertisements.

A wide spectrum of products was covered, starting from cigarettes 7 , technical products such as bank services, travel, express 16 , watches 7 , cars 6 other technology 3 ; beer and alcoholic drinks 5 ; to food 3 , detergents 1 , and luxury products: perfume 2.

Noun Group Structure A Noun Group Richards, : 8 is defined as an expanded noun, although it can be quite often represented by a single entity 2 , e. Structural constituents can have various functions within the NG: a the head noun has an experiential function i.

NG complexity can increase to a greater and greater extent, embedding other groups, phrases, or even clauses non-finite, relative : e. In order to demonstrate the existence of standard versus nonstandard linguistic choices at NG level, the total Ce NGs were divided into: A.

Simple NGs NGs — including noun groups with no heavier modification than closed-system items, with a further distinguished sub-class of pronouns and names; B. Complex NGs NGc — including NGs with: a closed-system item in premodification, plus a single adjective premodifier or a prepositional phrase postmodification C.

Class I Class1 — Simple Noun Groups In the closed-system premodifying items of Class1, the following structural elements were included: a predeterminers: all, both, half; b articles definite, indefinite, zero ; c demonstratives; d passives; e inclusives: no, neither, every, each, either; and f closed-system quantifiers: many, few, little, some, any.

Table 1. As stated before, postmodification post-m functions to narrow down the meaning of NG constituents. Explicitness in post-m decreases as we move from relative clauses to indefinite clauses and then to prepositional phrases, due to the specifying power of the relative pronoun and of the non-finite predicator.

This runs contrary to exact labeling purposes in advertising and could represent a functional explanation for the poorest representation of NGc in the corpus. Our findings do not coincide however with those obtained by Leech who underscored a tendency of advertising English to use brand names, not necessarily product names, nouns of place and time with synthetic genitive modification. Class III Class3 — NGmm Multiple modification has an extremely variegated texture and is cultivated with a greater commitment than complex modification in Class2 since its ultimate goal is to define, underscore, and extol the product qualities.

Chart 2 below presents the distribution of bare pre-m, bare post-m and mixed modification in NGmm. Were the pre-m constituents shifted to post-m position, explicitness would definitely increase but only at the expense of greater memory strain. Preponderant here is the dynamic adjective type i. The main function of alliteration is to enhance the product appeal and memorability Harris, Lengthy NGmm premodification usually combines NG premodification with adjectives as in the following examples: 1.

Mixed Modification in NGmm Mixed modification defines In this conglomerate, the order of NG elements paralleling that of the clause, postmodifying structures can be said to have similar functions to units placed in the clause rheme for focus and end-weight: they are most likely and purposefully placed there in order to be retained and perceived as newsworthy: e. Complexity in mixed modification can theoretically continue ad infinitum since each post-modifier may contain in its turn another potentially expandable element.

Role-borrowing NGmm are particularly frequent in cases of role-borrowing, i. Other Functions of Weighty Modification Overloaded NGs increase NG structural complexity and are meant to shed a complete and especially most commendatory light on the product. Royal Orchid Service stands for gourmet food, vintage French wines, friendly ground staff, charming cabin crew, and a fresh orchid for every passenger.

Slogan: Thai. The unexpected new Chanel fragrance. A decidedly young scent for those who dare to dream. In such situations there is no interest in obtaining brevity, no feature is of lesser import and language resources are overtly exploited to the extreme. A legitimate conclusion would therefore be that more complex syntaxes have a strong association with conspicuously sophisticated copies for luxury products that might also indicate a more polite, less straightforward soft sell. Block Language.

NGs as Major Realisation of an Ad Block language Quirk, is defined as the language of posters, labels, sign-posts, etc. A NG can function as the sole representation of a minor clause since it emphasizes key-words and contributes language economy Bruthiaux, Advertisements for luxury products such as perfume are especially prone to NG structural exploitation.

Shimp, Moreover, NGs as all other types of disjunctive language Leech, , communicate at the sublogical level and whatever severe or exaggerated a claim the copywriter makes, it cannot be challenged. Commonly, NGs function as attention-triggers and, together with frequent use of nominal groups, contribute to memorability Nayak, In A12 Cartier a similarly NG-slanted composition with Adj-G minor clauses see ad below in independent position inclines the balance in favor of participant roles: carrier, attributes.

Copy: 1 Historic. Attributes expressed by Adj-G watertight, designed to capture the spirit of coordination, agential past participial clause those who thrive on the prospect of functioning as Adj-G. Decidedly in time with our time. This is the ultimate watch. Attribute Slogan: 6. Brand name NGs in apposition to NGmm Except for the two finite clauses 2 and 5 the copy text rests on minor clauses with embedded structures of depth and great complexity.

NGs demonstrate to successfully substitute full sentence communication due to their ability to substitute predication and therefore to compress and essentialize. As such, NGs have a great propensity for carrying describers of product qualities and attitude, which are the ultimate goals of descriptive copies. Standard Ng Ratio for Long and Short Copies In order to demonstrate the existence of standard advertising language we have derived a statistically-based interval within which the linguistic variable, in our case NG complexity, can oscillate, not because it is imperiously necessary for all advertisements to fall within it in order to qualify as successful, but in order to identify to what an extent they deviate from their own intrinsically-set standards.

The derived common denominator was arrived at through statistical analysis of the NG structure in the two sub-groups of 22 long copy L-copy and 28 short copy S-copy advertisements. For instance, cigarette advertisements are almost invariably short whereas car and technical product advertisements are long. For the S-copy advertisements comprising NGs Discussions According to statistics, standard advertising English includes a high frequency of simple NGs versus more complex and multiply-modified NGs in both S- and L-copy.

The frequency histogram illustrates distributions tightly clustered around the mean 1. Such deviant, even reversed ratio distributions of heavy NGmm exceeding NGs is to be found only in two cases: A24 Thai and A44 Chanel , discussed above as examples of sophistication, exquisiteness, stately fustian language, and even aggression to the senses.

The following seven advertisements, although below standard, have a more balanced, standard-clustered distribution. Ads showing a modest standard deviation are usually attributed to role-borrowing, and can be even intuitively perceived as impinging on non-standard specificity.

Technical, electronic services ads which presuppose employment of informational, more elaborated structures, have a lower standard deviation Mitsubishi: 1,16; Nuvis S-copy comprises ads whose basic texture included the headline, the slogan, and not more than 1 or 2 body copy sentences or sentence fragments.

Five of the short-copy advertisements having either only NGs 4 or only complex NGmm 1 were not included in the graph since no ratio could be either calculated or graphically represented without a missing variable. Only in 3 out of the 28 samples, did the proportion of heavily modified NGs exceed the simple NGs with a ratio below standard.

The greatest majority, however, are very close to the standard, clustered within the interval , a relative frequency of 0. Advertisements showing a modestly higher proportion of complex NGs are either attributed to role borrowing or to product type technical products comprising informational, more complex constituents.

Whenever technical products prefer simplicity the approach gains in intimacy and involvement. A more complex NG structure was generally observed to have a strong association with sophisticated copies for luxury products. NGs can frequently represent the only realization of an advertisement and function as economy devices. NGs are able to successfully substitute full sentence communication due to their ability of substituting predication, thus contributing to memorability through emphasis on key word heads..

Bruthiaux, P. Cook, G. Harris, R. Leech, G. Singapore: Longman Group Limited, 7. Richards, J. Roberts, P. Shimp, T. How many words are there in a sentence? The most probable answer is that there are as many words as items separated by spaces. But is this really the case? In what follows we try to find an answer. How many words are there in this sentence?

The most probable answer to the question is that there are fourteen words since there are thirteen spaces between the items, since in writing a word is seen as an item bounded by spaces. Some words occur more than once, for example a and the. Are they the same word and, therefore, counted once? Are they two different words?

If the two occurrences are seen as the same word, the total comes to thirteen. What is to be said about the two occurrences of bow? From an orthographic point of view the two occurrences of bow constitute a single word and bring the total to twelve words the orthographic representation neglects the meaning of the words.

Therefore, the answer to the question above is anything but simple. Despite these difficulties, however, certain features are fundamental to English cf. In addition, there are some other expressions that describe kinds of words and word-like units.

Thus, there are: groups in which word appears: base word, buzz word, compound word, root-word; terms based on —ism, such as Americanism, malapropism; terms based on —onym, such as synonym, antonym, aponym, acronym; terms that refer to form more than meaning, such as complex word, abbreviation, portmanteau word, acronym; terms that refer to meaning more than form: eponym, hard word, antonym; terms that relate to social usage, such as anagram, stunt word, palindrome, loanword.

The relationship between tokens and types is one of substance: concrete tokens can be said to provide examples of abstract types. Lyons, , Palmer, , Matthews, , also cited by Dutescu-Coliban, We mention here: a there are languages without words b the term is ambiguous c the term can be defined neither as a semantic unit, nor as a phonological unit, nor as an isolable and indivisible unit.

All these critical remarks were made by those who advocated the morpheme. Some of their objections, however, are arbitrary and one-sided. The two answered are identical phonological words, but grammatically they are different. Matthews says that just as a part of a word does not, as a rule, appear on its own unless, of course, it is itself another word , so the parts cannot, as a rule, be separated by other forms unless, of course, the whole is then a new word.

This characteristic implies the next two features. However, permutations are possible cf. Marchand, 3. Matthews, ; thus, outlet is different from let-out, shotgun from gunshot, or cart-horse from horse-cart. Clearly, words are not the smallest linguistic signs. The word consists of at least one free lexical morpheme or a whole series of lexical morphemes, like funny bone, eavesdrop, eastmost.

The result of such combinations is one lexeme, and this is evident from the possibility of assigning it to a specific word class. Lipka says that even very complex words can be inflected and, therefore these inflected words are then cases of word-forms, not instances of new lexemes. Aronoff, M. Dutescu-Coliban, T. Jackson, H. Lipka, L. Lyons, J. Marchand, G. Matthews, P. McArthur, T. Palmer, F. A soap opera involves multiple perspectives and no consensus: ambivalence and contradiction is characteristic of the genre.

Most soaps follow the lives of a group of characters who work in a particular place, or focus on a large, extended family. The storylines follow the day-to-day lives of these characters. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the United States, the characters are generally more attractive, seductive, glamourous, and wealthy than the typical person watching the show.

This is true to a lesser extent in soap operas from Australia and the United Kingdom, which largely focus on more everyday characters and situations and are frequently set in working class environments. Many Australian and UK soap operas explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown, or financial problems, and sometimes include significant amounts of comedy.. In US daytime serials the most popular soap opera characters, and the most popular storylines, often involved a romance of the sort presented in paperback romance novels.

Romance, secret relationships, extra-marital affairs, and genuine love have been the basis for many soap opera storylines. Soap opera storylines sometimes weave intricate, convoluted, and sometimes confusing tales of characters who have affairs, meet mysterious strangers and fall in love, and who commit adultery, all of which keeps audiences hooked on the unfolding story twists.

Crimes such as kidnapping, rape, and even murder often go unpunished, unless the character is being written off. In what follows we will try to identify the features that individualize US and UK soaps. The soap opera form originated on U. They normally air during the daytime, hence the alternative name, daytime drama sometimes the umbrella term "daytime" is used to describe a schedule of soap operas, despite talk shows and game shows appearing in the same time slots.

By the start of World War II there were dozens of popular soap operas. The first concerted effort to air continuing drama on television occurred in on the DuMont television series Faraway Hill. Soap operas continued to dominate daytime ratings and schedules in the immediate post-war period. In the ten highest rated daytime programs were all soap operas, and of the top thirty daytime shows all but five were soaps.

As television began to supplant radio as a national advertising medium in the late s, the same companies that owned or sponsored radio soap operas looked to the new medium as a means of introducing new products and exploiting pent-up consumer demand.

Two long-running soaps, Search for Tomorrow and Love of Life, started broadcasting in Guiding Light began on radio in and first aired on television in Specifically, broadcasters hoped to interest manufacturers of household cleaners, food products, and toiletries in the possibility of using daytime radio to reach their prime consumer market: women between the ages of eighteen and forty-nine.

It demonstrated some of the problems of transplanting the radio genre to television. Production costs were two to three times that of a radio serial. Actors had to act and not merely read their lines. The complexity and uncertainty of producing fifteen minutes of live television drama each weekday was vastly greater than was the case on radio.

Soap operas are of two basic narrative types: open soap operas, in which there is no end point toward which the action of the narrative moves; and closed soap operas, in which, no matter how attenuated the process, the narrative does eventually close. The closed soap opera is more common in Latin America, where it dominates prime time programming from Mexico to Chile. These telenovelas are broadcast nightly and may stretch over three or four months and hundreds of episodes.

They are, however, designed eventually to end, and it is the anticipation of closure in both the design and reception of the closed soap opera that makes it fundamentally different from the open form. Any key information which might have been missed is worked into the plot when necessary. Nevertheless knowledge of previous events can usefully be brought to bear by habitual viewers, and doing so is part of the pleasure of viewing for them.

Viewers are also in an omniscient position, knowing more than any character does. The form is unique in offering viewers the chance to engage in informed speculation about possible turn of events. In the United States, at least, the term soap opera has never been value neutral. As noted above, the term itself signals an aesthetic and cultural incongruity: the events of everyday life elevated to the subject matter of an operatic form. One could listen to a radio soap while doing other things, even in another room; television soaps required some degree of visual attention.

From the outset, these stories, with themes taken from classical tragedy — betrayal, forbidden love, punishment — captivated television audiences throughout Latin America. Gill, for example, amazingly enough ignores soaps because he does not want to invest his time in watching programs that never come to a conclusion. In such a manner he is able to ignore the most viewed and talked about shows on the box!

Though I doubt that he includes news and current affairs that feature equally inconclusive events. Soap viewers often assumed to be only women, and in particular working-class housewives are characterized unfairly as naive escapists. Given the great popularity of the genre, such criticisms can be seen as culturally elitist. Robert Allen argues that to emphasize what happens when in soaps in semiotic terms the syntagmatic dimension is to underestimate the equal importance of who relates this to whom the paradigmatic dimension.

Certainly relationships are more important than plot. Producers, and apologists for soaps, point out that they provide an educational and public service. Certainly the main objective of the British The Archers radio soap when it was established in the post war years was to give agricultural advice to farmers in an entertaining format.

In recent years it has advocated the benefits of organic farming, and amongst the drama of country folk it does sometimes address farming issues. The British TV soap, Brookside, set in a Liverpool housing estate, often introduces stories that raise social and ethical issues.

It has covered everything from incest, cults, racism, drugs, crime, lesbianism, mental breakdown, bullying, euthanasia and sexual abuse. It went on to deal with infertility treatment and abortion. Coronation Street has just had a major storyline about the dangers of internet chat rooms. Sure soaps can publicize all kinds of issues but their influence is conditioned and restricted by their own format. Since soaps are on-going one or several episodes they can show a character getting away with murder, but we all know that in the unwritten code of soaps that they will be found out and punished, eventually.

In other words soaps can present several sides to an issue without positively endorsing any one course of action. With this knowledge we can wonder how characters will respond to upcoming situations or revelations. The viewer invests their morals, attitudes and beliefs in to the soap and can speculate about how they would react to the same situations and dilemmas.

Just like the characters in soaps they allow us to gossip with friends and family about the goings-on in soaps Watson, The structure of soaps is complex and there is no final word on any issue. All this leaves soaps particularly open to individual interpretations more than television documentaries, suggests David Buckingham She argues that pleasure in narrative focuses on closure, whilst soaps delay resolution and make anticipation an end in itself.

Narrative interests are diffused among many characters and her power to resolve their problems is limited. The reader is the mother as sympathetic listener to all sides. Easthope argues that the masculine ego favors forms which are self-contained, and which have a sense of closure. It is linear and goal-oriented. Soaps make consequences more important than actions, involve many complications, and avoid closure. Dialogue in masculine narratives is driven by plot which it explains, clarifies and simplifies.

In soaps dialogue blurs and delays. There is no single hero in soaps, no privileged moral perspective, multiple narrative lines non-linear plot and few certainties. Not much seems to 'happen' in many soap operas by comparison with, say, an action series or an adventure serial because there is little rapid action.

In soaps such as Coronation Street and Brookside what matters is the effect of events on the characters. This is revealed through characters talking to each other. Such a form invites viewers to offer their own comments. Many Australian and UK soap operas explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown, or financial problems, and sometimes include significant amounts of comedy.

Australian and UK soap operas also feature a significant proportion of romance storylines. Unexpected calamities disrupt weddings, childbirths, and other major life events with unusual frequency. In addition, the musical soundtrack used for a soap opera uses a style that instantly identifies it as belonging to soap operas. Soaps aired during the golden age of radio usually used organs to produce most of their music because they were cheaper than full orchestras. The organists from the radio serials moved over to television, and were heard on some serials as late as the s.

Organ music was abandoned by the serials during the s and s to be replaced by pre-recorded library music, mostly created by synthesizers. Other soaps, especially British and recent Australian ones, frequently use pop music in their soundtrack; however UK soap operas, with their realist tone, rarely feature any non-diegetic music at all, and the popular music backing is depicted as being played on the radio within the scene.

An instantly recognizable characteristic of a soap one that has been spoofed and imitated many times consists of a scene where a character delivers a shocking revelation. At that moment a single, blaring organ chord resonates on the soundtrack, emphasizing this dramatic moment. The tradition of broadcast serial drama in Britain goes back to s radio and The Archers, a daily, fifteen minute serial of country life broadcast by the BBC initially as a means of educating farmers about better agricultural practices.

The British television serial, on the other hand, grows out of the needs of commercial television in the late s. In December , Manchester based Granada Television introduced its viewers to Coronation Street, a serial set in a local working-class neighborhood. The following year it was broadcasted nationwide and has remained at or near the top of primetime television ratings ever since.

In the United Kingdom, soap operas are one of the most popular genres, most being broadcast during prime time. Most UK soaps focus on working-class communities. Taylor Forrester on The Bold and the Beautiful seemed permanent as she had flatlined on-camera and even had a funeral. But when actress Hunter Tylo returned in , the show retconned the "flatlining" with the revelation that Taylor had actually gone into a coma.

Pop music is less frequent on the US serials, as the royalties needed to be paid to artists would cost too much for the production companies in charge of making the serials. Coronation Street has been a popular soap opera in the United Kingdom since the show was first aired in The series still runs, albeit with several cast changes over the years. Where UK daytime serials were and still are disconnected from any particular locality, Coronation Street is unmistakably local.

Other soap operas of the s included Emergency Ward 10 ITV , and on the BBC Compact about the staff of a women's magazine and The Newcomers about the upheaval caused by a large firm setting up a plant in a small town. However none of these came close to making the same impact as Coronation Street. During the s Corrie's main rival was Crossroads, a daily serial that began in and was broadcast by ITV at teatime. Crossroads was set in a Birmingham motel and while the series was popular, its purported low technical standard and bad acting was much mocked.

By the s its ratings had begun to decline and several attempts to revamp the series through cast changes and later, expanding the focus from the motel to the surrounding community, were unsuccessful, and Crossroads was cancelled in Increased viewing figures saw Emmerdale being moved to a prime-time slot in the s.

When Channel 4 began in it launched its own soap, the Liverpool based Brookside, which over the next decade re-defined the UK television soap. In , the BBC's London based soap opera EastEnders debuted and was a near instant success with viewers and critics alike. Critics talked about the downfall of Coronation Street, but this was put to rest in when the two serials were scheduled opposite each other, with Corrie winning handily.

For the better part of ten years, the show has shared the number one position with 12 Soap operas began on radio and consequently were associated with the BBC. It has been running since nationally. Daytime soaps were unknown until the s because there was virtually no daytime television in the UK. These achieved significant levels of popularity.

Neighbours and Home and Away were moved to early- evening slots and the UK soap opera boom began in the late s. Later, saw the BBC launch Eldorado to alternate with EastEnders but it only lasted a year; however, this failure did not stop the ever-increasing prominence that soap operas would have in UK schedules. In Channel 4 introduced Hollyoaks, a soap with a youth focus. Brookside ended in November , leaving Hollyoaks as the channel's flagship serial. When Channel Five began in March it came with its own soap opera, Family Affairs,13 which debuted as a five-days-a-week soap.

In a new version of Crossroads was produced by Carlton Television for ITV, featuring a mostly new cast, but it did not achieve satisfactory ratings and was cancelled in In ITV also launched a new early-evening serial entitled Night and Day, however this series too attracted low viewing figures and after being shifted to a late night time slot was cancelled in UK soaps for many years usually only aired two nights a week.

The exception was the original Crossroads, which began as a five days a week soap opera in the s, but was later reduced. In , things started to change when Coronation Street began airing three times a week later expanding further to four in , a trend which was soon followed by rival EastEnders in and Emmerdale in Family Affairs debuted as a five-days-a-week soap in and regularly ran five episodes a week its entire run.

They have been much more specific and explicit in their class settings than their American counterpart; 13 Family Affairs, which was broadcast opposite the racier Hollyoaks, never achieved significantly high viewing figures leading to several dramatic revamps of the cast and marked changes in style and even location over its run. This eventually saw the show gain a larger fan base and by the series won its first awards, however Family Affairs was nevertheless cancelled in late ZDRENGHEA for this reason their fidelity to and deviation from standard of social verisimilitude has been much more an issue than has ever been the case with American soaps.

Coronation Street has been criticized for its insulated and outdated representation of the urban working-class community, which for decades seem to have been bypassed by social change and strife. Today Coronation Street which began screening two episodes on Monday nights in and Hollyoaks both produce five episodes a week, while EastEnders screens four.

In Emmerdale began screening six episodes a week leading to the concern that soap operas in the UK were at saturation level. Today's UK soap operas are mainly shot on videotape in the studio using a multicamera setup. However UK soap operas feature a proportion of outdoors shot footage in each episode - usually shot on a purpose-built outdoor set that represents the community the soap focuses on. Recurrent events in soap opera include courtships, marriages, divorces, deaths and disappearances.

Gossip is a key feature in soaps usually absent from other genres : in part it acts as a commentary on the action. Geraghty notes that 'more frequently than other TV genres, soaps feature women characters normally excluded by their age, appearance or status' Unlike a play or a series there is always a wide range of characters in a soap opera which means that no single character is indispensable.

The large cast and the possibility of casual viewers necessitates rapid characterization and the use of recognizable 'types'. Some feminist theorists have argued that soap operas spring from a feminine aesthetic, in contrast to most prime-time TV. Soaps are unlike traditional dramas e. They do not build up towards an ending or closure of meaning.

Viewers can join a soap opera at any point. There is no single narrative line: several stories are woven together over a number of episodes. In this sense the plots of soaps are not linear. An attempt to represent the world in words or images may 'distort reality', but at its best can 'mirror reality'. From the perspective of the programme makers, documentary realism Colin MacCabe calls this classic realism in the case of the novel involves foregrounding the story and backgrounding the use of the conventions of the medium e.

Realism in drama is no less a set of conventions than any other style, and it serves to mask whose realities are being presented. It is found in most soaps, although in American soaps such as Dallas and Dynasty lapses into implausibility may tend to distance the viewer. Plausibility and credibility is also valued more than in American prime-time soaps. John Fiske in Seiter et al. Published stories about the characters in soaps and the actors who play them link the world of the soap with the outside world, but they also allow viewers to treat the soap as a kind of game.

Ien Ang argues that watching soaps involves a kind of psychological realism for the viewer: an emotional realism which exists at the connotative rather than denotative content level. For many viewers of Dallas this was a tragic structure of feeling: evoking the idea that happiness is precarious. Competence in judging this is not confined to professional critics. The soap may be accepted to some extent as a world in its own right, in which slightly different rules may sometimes apply.

Producers sometimes remark that realistic drama offers a slice of life with the duller bits cut out, and that long- running soaps are even more realistic than other forms because less has to be excluded. Soaps in general have a predominantly female audience, although prime-time soaps such as Dallas and the most recent British soaps are deliberately aimed at a wider audience.

According to Ang , and hardly surprisingly, in Dallas the main interest for men was in business relations and problem and the power and wealth shown, whereas for women were more often interested in the family issues and love affairs. In the case of Dallas it is clear that the program meant something different for female viewers compared with male viewers. Certainly soaps tend to appeal to those who value the personal and domestic world.

As housewives and mothers, women need to be able to do several things at once, to switch from one task to another, to deal with other people's problems, to be interrupted. Redundancy and repetition make interrupted viewing possible; it has even been suggested that soaps are made to be heard rather than seen. Modleski argues that watching soap operas habituates women to distraction and fragmentation.

Geraghty also notes that there is some evidence that families use soaps as a way of raising and discussing awkward situations. Most viewers seem to oscillate between involvement and distance in the ways in which they engage with soaps. It deals with personal events. Work away from the home is seldom shown.

Political and social explanations for events are largely supplanted by personal explanations based on the innate psychological factors of individuals or occasionally on luck Jordan, in Dyer, People meet in shops and the pub to comment on events. Life seems to revolve around finding a partner. The introduction of outsiders to the community is usually presented as a threat. It departs from realism in its use of caricature, stereotyping, bursts of stylized repartee and occasional use of melodrama, some of these features sometimes being employed almost self-mockingly.

It has been criticized for the minimal role of non- whites. Viewing ratings dropped when an attempt was made to introduce more contemporary themes, and there was then a move towards a lighter, more humorous style. Rival soaps because they had discovered how central it seemed to be in lunchtime discussions.

It involved anticipating what might happen next, discussing the significance of recent events and relating them to their own experiences. First shown in , it is the longest-running British TV soap opera. It is watched by about one-third of the British population, by rather more women than men, by older people, and especially by people from lower socio-economic groups Livingstone, It offers a nostalgic perspective on northern industrial working-class life as group-centered, matriarchal, commonsensical and blunt but also warm-hearted.

However, it has been criticized as having grown old with its audience. The Close uses part of a real housing estate rather than a constructed studio set. It features a range of characters from different social classes, and some of the actors are similar to the characters they play. It has a number of young characters including some still at school so not surprisingly it appeals very much to younger viewers.

It also offers a wider range of male characters than the traditional British soaps. It has sometimes drawn on the genre of the crime series. The use of real houses tends to restrict it to a single-camera approach. There are no real meeting places, which makes it difficult to weave several stories together. And it has sometimes been criticized for being too didactic. Eastenders, a BBC production, was first broadcast in It is watched by a little under a third of the British population, by more women than men, and more by those in lower socio-economic groups Livingstone, The characters tend to be mainly working class.

In addition to women, young characters and men are given strong roles, so that the potential audience is wide. It has become particularly popular with teenagers. Camerawork consists primarily of group shots, 2-shots or 3-shots in medium to medium close-up , shot-reverse shot, occasional panning, and close-ups of single characters for emphasis. Above all, we wanted realism. Eastenders has also featured single-parent families, teenage pregnancy, prostitution, arranged marriages, attempted suicide, drug problems, alcoholism, generational conflicts, a protection racket, a cot death, extra-marital affairs and marital bust-ups, sexism, urban deprivation, mental breakdown, disappearances, muggings, a fatal road accident and a suspected murder: it has sometimes been criticized for being bleak!

Perhaps in an attempt to attract more male viewers once can sometimes notice a tendency to shift a little towards the genre of the crime series. Nevertheless, much of the action remains deliberately mundane. They accept that the program has an informational or educational function for viewers, offering a discussion of topics of concern to them, but they are more concerned with raising questions than with offering answers.

Entertainment is seen as the main purpose. The program makers probably seek to avoid putting viewers off by seeming to be patronizing. However, critics have occasionally noted episodes involving a very didactic style. The program does not confine itself to the naturalistic mode, but sometimes shifts towards either melodrama or sitcom.

However, he also notes that it tends to have more simultaneous storylines, more scenes, more meeting- places, more characters per episode, and a faster pace than either Coronation Street or Brookside Buckingham, If we cross the Atlantic, we will see a different kind of soap. Elements of the Western were also employed. Glamour was a key feature: locations were often exotic and the costumes of the main actresses were often extravagant; viewers were invited into a world of abundance.

Most of the characters were physically very attractive, and almost all were white. Dallas featured the rivalry between the Ewing family and the Barnes family, but business life was far more central than in British soaps.

The story also featured murder, marital crisis, adultery, alcoholism, illness, miscarriage, rape, air and car accidents, kidnapping, corruption, illegitimate children, secret pasts, chance meetings and so on. An episode typically featured short scenes, most of which consisted of conversation. Camerawork and editing remained conventional, to avoid distancing the viewer.

Facial expressions are sometimes shown in close-up and held for a few seconds before the next scene. The American soap opera The Guiding Light started as a radio drama in January and subsequently transferred to television. It is also not uncommon for a single actor to play several characters on other shows 18 Dallas, a high-budget American weekly prime-time soap first screened in , has been broadcast in over 90 countries.

One fifth of the British population watched it; viewers included more women than men Livingstone, On the other hand, a number of actors have remained in their roles for decades. In the USA, the shows purely known in the vernacular as soap operas are broadcast during daytime.

In the beginning, the serials were broadcast as fifteen-minute installments each weekday. In , the first half-hour soaps20 debuted, and all of the soaps broadcast half-hour episodes by the end of the s. When the soap opera hit a fever pitch in the s, popular demand had most of the shows, one by one, expanded to an hour in length one show, Another World, even expanded to ninety minutes for a short time.

Today, eight out of the nine American serials air sixty-minute episodes each weekday. Only The Bold and The Beautiful airs for 30 minutes. Also in the early days, soaps were broadcast live, creating what many at the time regarded as a feeling similar to that of a stage play. By the early s, nearly all soaps had transitioned to being taped, with As the World Turns and Edge of Night being the last to make the switch in Many soaps, in the beginning of television, found their niches in telling stories in certain environments.

Bob Hughes, respectively, have each been in their roles nearly as long, both having joined the show in With the equivalent running time of two feature films each week, As the World Turns expanded the community of characters, slowed the narrative pace, emphasized the exploration of character, utilized multiple cameras to better capture facial expressions and reactions, and built its appeal less on individual action than on exploring the network of relationships among members of two extended families.

According to the Preview issue of Soap Opera Digest, it was briefly discussed that all ABC shows might do telenovela arcs, but this was rejected. When her status moved to that of the caring mother and town matriarch, her children's marital troubles were then put on display.

Search for Tomorrow told the story, for the most part, through the eyes of one woman only: the heroine, Joanne Mary Stuart. Even when stories revolved around other characters, she was almost always a main fixture in their storylines. Days of Our Lives first told the stories of Dr. Tom Horton and his steadfast wife Alice.

In later years, the show branched out and told the stories of their five children. The first real prime time soap opera was ABC's Peyton Place 25, based in part on the original movie which was itself taken from the novel. The latter half of the s was a key period in the history of U.

By both the popularity and profitability of the television soap opera had been amply illustrated. Soaps proved unrivaled in attracting female viewers aged bewteen eighteen and forty-nine — the demographic group responsible for making most of the non- durable good purchising decisions in U. For the fist time CBS faced competition for the available daytime audience. Its characters included the vampire Barnabas Collins, the witch Angelique, and various ghosts and goblins, both friendly and malevolent.

Believing that daytime audiences would also watch soaps during primetime, in September ABC introduced Peyton Place. A long line of successes followed. These shows frequently dealt with wealthy families and their personal and big-business travails. Common characteristics were sumptuous sets and costumes, the presence of at least one glamorous bitch-figure in the cast of characters, and spectacular disaster cliffhanger situations. Unlike daytime serials which where shot on video in a studio using the multicamera setup, these evening series were shot on film using a single camera setup and featured much location-shot footage, often in picturesque locales.

Dallas, its spin-off Knots Landing, and Falcon Crest all initially featured episodes with self-contained stories and specific guest stars who appeared in just that episode. Each story would be completely resolved by the end of the episode and there were no end-of- episode cliffhangers. After the first couple of seasons all three shows changed their story format to that of a pure soap opera with interwoven ongoing narratives that ran over several episodes.

Dynasty featured this format throughout its run. The soap opera's distinctive open plot structure and complex continuity also began to be increasingly incorporated into major American prime time television programs. The first significant drama series to do this was Hill Street Blues, produced by Steven Bochco, which featured many elements borrowed from soap operas such as an ensemble cast, multi-episode storylines and extensive character development over the course of the series.

The success of this series prompted other drama series and situation comedy shows such as St. Elsewhere, The West Wing and Friends to incorporate soap opera style stories and story structure to varying degrees. The action rarely left the interior settings within the fictional, medium-sized Midwestern towns in which the shows were set. Exterior shots, once a rarity, were slowly incorporated into the series Ryan's Hope.

Unlike many earlier serials which were set in fictional towns, Ryan's Hope was set in real location, New York City, and outside shoots were used to give the series greater authenticity. The first exotic location shoot was made by All My Children, to St. Croix in Many other soaps planned lavish storylines after seeing the success of the All My Children shoot. Another World went to St. Croix in March 26 The prime time soap operas and drama series of the s, such as Beverly Hills , Melrose Place and Dawson's Creek, focused more on younger characters.

In the late s and early s many new prime time soap operas were produced for cable television, including Queer As Folk and Desperate Housewives. Search for Tomorrow taped for two weeks in Hong Kong in During the s, perhaps as a reaction to the evening drama series that were gaining high ratings, daytime serials began to incorporate action and adventure storylines, more big-business intrigue, and featured an increased emphasis on youthful romance and began developing supercouples. One of the first and most popular supercouples was Luke and Laura in General Hospital.

Luke and Laura helped to attract both male and female fans. With increasingly bizarre action storylines coming into vogue Luke and Laura saved the world from being frozen, brought a mobster down by finding his black book in a Left-Handed Boy Statue, and helped a Princess find her Aztec Treasure in Mexico. Other soaps attempted similar adventure storylines, often featuring footage shot on location - frequently in exotic locales.

During the s the mob stories and the action and adventure plotlines fell out of favour with producers due to overall lower ratings for daytime soap operas and the resultant budget cuts. In the s soaps were no longer able to go on expensive location shoots to Argentina, France, Hawaii, Jamaica, Italy and Japan as they had in the s.

Other social issues included breast cancer, AIDS, and racism. Modern U. The duration and format of storylines and the visual grammar employed by US daytime serials set them apart from soap operas in other countries and from evening soap operas. Stylistically, UK and Australian soap operas, which are usually produced for evening timeslots, fall somewhere in-between US daytime and evening soap operas.

Similar to US daytime soaps, UK and Australian serials are shot on videotape, and the cast and storylines are rotated across the week's episodes so that each cast member will appear in some but not all episodes. Port Charles has featured a vampire character. Frequently these characters are isolated in one of the ongoing story threads to allow a fan to ignore them if they do not like that element.

The early s saw intense competition among the three networks for soap opera viewers. Anakin's Dream 3. Battle of the Heroes 4. Anakin's Betrayal 5. General Grievous 6. Palpatine's Teachings 7. Grievous and the Droids 8. Padme's Ruminations 9. Anakin Vs. Obi - Wan Anakin's Dark Deeds Enter Lord Vader The Immolation Scene Grievous Speaks to Lord Sidious Imperial Attack 4.

The Moisture Farm 6. Burning Homestead Mos Eisley Spaceport Cantina Band Cantina Band 2 Binary Sunset Alternate Medley Binary Sunset Alternate Disc: 2 1. Princess Leia's Theme 2. Destruction of Alderaan 4. The Trash Compactor 8. The Battle of Yavin The Imperial Probe Aboard the Executor 5. The Battle of Hoth 6. The Asteroid Field 7. Arrival on Dagobah 8.

Luke s Nocturnal Visitor 9. Han Solo and the Princess Jedi Master Revealed Mynock Cave The Imperial March 2. Yoda s Theme 3. Attacking a Star Destroyer 4. Yoda and the Force 5. Imperial Starfleet Deployed City in the Clouds 6. Lando s Palace 7. Betrayal at Bespin 8. Deal with the Dark Lord 9.

The Clash of Lightsabers Rescue from Cloud City Hyperspace The Rebel Fleet End Title. Episode VI — Return of the Jedi. Droids Are Captured, The - previously unreleased 4.

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